For women with the most common type of early-stage breast cancer and high scores on the Oncotype DX test, receiving chemotherapy with hormone therapy after surgery can lead to excellent long-term outcomes. That’s the conclusion of a new data analysis from the NCI-funded TAILORx clinical trial. The 10,000-patient trial investigated the use of the Oncotype DX test to help guide the care of women with hormone receptor‒positive, HER2-negative breast cancer that has not spread to lymph nodes. This diagnosis accounts for half of all breast cancer cases in the United States each year. The Oncotype DX test is used to assign each women’s cancer a score for recurrence risk on a scale of 0‒100. Women in the TAILORx trial with a high recurrence score on the test (26 and above) were assigned to receive chemotherapy and hormone therapy after surgery. According to the new analysis, an estimated 96% of women in this group were still alive at 5 years. “This analysis solidifies the standard recommendation that chemotherapy should be offered to women with a recurrence score in the 26‒100 range,” said Larissa Korde, M.D., head of Breast Cancer Therapeutics in NCI’s Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, which funded the study. “It shows that patients who receive chemotherapy have good outcomes and that there are a wide range of effective chemotherapy options that are available to these patients.” The researchers also used statistical models to estimate what the outcomes would have been for women in the high-risk group if they had been treated with hormone therapy alone. In this comparison, they found that women who were treated with both chemotherapy and hormone therapy were less likely to have a recurrence of their breast cancer at a distant site than would be expected for women treated only with hormone therapy.